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What You Expect Is What You Get? Potential Use of Contingent Negative Variation for Passive BCI Systems in Gaze-Based HCI


Book Chapter


When using eye movements for cursor control in human-computer interaction (HCI), it may be difficult to find an appropriate substitute for the click operation. Most approaches make use of dwell times. However, in this context the so-called Midas-Touch-Problem occurs which means that the system wrongly interprets fixations due to long processing times or spontaneous dwellings of the user as command. Lately it has been shown that brain-computer interface (BCI) input bears good prospects to overcome this problem using imagined hand movements to elicit a selection. The current approach tries to develop this idea further by exploring potential signals for the use in a passive BCI, which would have the advantage that the brain signals used as input are generated automatically without conscious effort of the user. To explore event-related potentials (ERPs) giving information about the user’s intention to select an object, 32-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from ten participants interacting with a dwell-time-based system. Comparing ERP signals during the dwell time with those occurring during fixations on a neutral cross hair, a sustained negative slow cortical potential at central electrode sites was revealed. This negativity might be a contingent negative variation (CNV) reflecting the participants’ anticipation of the upcoming selection. Offline classification suggests that the CNV is detectable in single trial (mean accuracy 74.9 %). In future, research on the CNV should be accomplished to ensure its stable occurence in human-computer interaction and render possible its use as a potential substitue for the click operation.

Author(s): Ihme, K. and Zander, TO.
Book Title: Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction
Volume: 6975
Pages: 447-456
Year: 2011
Day: 0

Series: Lecture Notes in Computer Science
Editors: D'Mello, S., Graesser, A., Schuller, B. and Martin, J.-C.
Publisher: Springer

Department(s): Empirical Inference
Bibtex Type: Book Chapter (inbook)

Address: Berlin, Germany
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-24571-8_57
ISBN: 978-3-642-24570-1


  title = {What You Expect Is What You Get? Potential Use of Contingent Negative Variation for Passive BCI Systems in Gaze-Based HCI},
  author = {Ihme, K. and Zander, TO.},
  booktitle = {Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction},
  volume = {6975},
  pages = {447-456},
  series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  editors = {D'Mello, S., Graesser, A., Schuller, B. and Martin, J.-C.},
  publisher = {Springer},
  address = {Berlin, Germany},
  year = {2011}