Performance metrics are a key component of machine learning systems, and are ideally constructed to reflect real world tradeoffs. In contrast, much of the literature simply focuses on algorithms for maximizing accuracy. With the increasing integration of machine learning into real systems, it is clear that accuracy is an insufficient measure of performance for many problems of interest. Unfortunately, unlike accuracy, many real world performance metrics are non-decomposable i.e. cannot be computed as a sum of losses for each instance. Thus, known algorithms and associated analysis are not trivially extended, and direct approaches require expensive combinatorial optimization. I will outline recent results characterizing population optimal classifiers for large families of binary and multilabel classification metrics, including such nonlinear metrics as F-measure and Jaccard measure. Perhaps surprisingly, the prediction which maximizes the utility for a range of such metrics takes a simple form. This results in simple and scalable procedures for optimizing complex metrics in practice. I will also outline how the same analysis gives optimal procedures for selecting point estimates from complex posterior distributions for structured objects such as graphs. Joint work with Nagarajan Natarajan, Bowei Yan, Kai Zhong, Pradeep Ravikumar and Inderjit Dhillon.
Organizers: Mijung Park
Creating convincing human facial animation is challenging. Face animation is often hand-crafted by artists separately from body motion. Alternatively, if the face animation is derived from motion capture, it is typically performed while the actor is relatively still. Recombining the isolated face animation with body motion is non-trivial and often results in uncanny results if the body dynamics are not properly reflected on the face (e.g. cheeks wiggling when running). In this talk, I will discuss the challenges of human soft tissue simulation and control. I will then present our method for adding physical effects to facial blendshape animation. Unlike previous methods that try to add physics to face rigs, our method can combine facial animation and rigid body motion consistently while preserving the original animation as closely as possible. Our novel simulation framework uses the original animation as per-frame rest-poses without adding spurious forces. We also propose the concept of blendmaterials to give artists an intuitive means to control the changing material properties due to muscle activation.
Organizers: Timo Bolkart
Variations in lighting can have a significant effect on the appearance of an object. Modeling these variations is important for object recognition and shape reconstruction, particularly of smooth, textureless objects. The recent decade has seen significant progress in handling lambertian objects. In that context I will present our work on using harmonic representations to represent the reflectance of lambertian objects under complex lighting configurations and their application to photometric stereo and prior-assisted shape from shading. In addition, I will present preliminary results in handling specular objects and methods for dealing with moving objects.
Dimensionality reduction applied to neural ensemble data has led to the concept of a 'neural trajectory', a low-dimensional representation of how the state of the network evolves over time. Here we present a novel neural trajectory extraction algorithm which combines spike train distance metrics (Victor and Purpura, 1996) with dimensionality reduction based on local neighborhood statistics (van der Maaten and Hinton, 2008.) . We apply this technique to describe and quantify the activity of primate ventral premotor cortex neuronal ensembles in the context of a cued reaching and grasping task with instructed delay.
Humans interact with their environment in a highly flexible manner. One important component for the successful control of such flexible interactions is an internal body model. To maintain a consistent internal body model, the brain appears to continuously and probabilistically integrate multiple sources of information, including various sensory modalities but also anticipatory, re-afferent information about current body motion. A modular, multimodal arm model (MMM) is presented.
The model represents a seven degree of freedom arm in various interactive modality frames. The modality frames distinguish between proprioceptive, limb-relative orientation, head-relative orientation, and head-relative location frames. Each arm limb is represented separately but highly interactively in each of these modality frames. Incoming sensory and motor feedback information is continuously exchanged in a rigorous, probabilistic fashion, while a consistent overall arm model is maintained due to the local interactions.
The model is able to automatically identify sensory failures and sensory noise. Moreover, it is able to mimic the rubber hand illusion phenomenon. Currently, we endow the model with neural representations for each modality frame to play-out its full potential for planning and goal-directed control.
The amount of digital video content available is growing daily, on sites such as YouTube. Recent statistics on the YouTube website show that around 48 hours of video are uploaded every minute. This massive data production calls for automatic analysis.
In this talk we present some recent results for action recognition in videos. Bag-of-features have shown very good performance for action recognition in videos. We briefly review the underlying principles and introduce trajectory-based video features, which have shown to outperform the state of the art. These trajectory features are obtained by dense point sampling and tracking based on displacement information from a dense optical flow field. Trajectory descriptors are obtained with motion boundary histograms, which are robust to camera motion. We, then, show how to integrate temporal structure into a bag-of-features based on an actom sequence model. Action sequence models localize actions based on sequences of atomic actions, i.e., represent the temporal structure by sequences of histograms of actom-anchored visual features. This representation is flexible, sparse and discriminative. The resulting actom sequence model is shown to significantly improve performance over existing methods for temporal action localization.
Finally, we show how to move towards more structured representations by explicitly modeling human-object interactions. We learn how to represent human actions as interactions between persons and objects. We localize in space and track over time both the object and the person, and represent an action as the trajectory of the object with respect to the person position, i.e., our human-object interaction features capture the relative trajectory of the object with respect to the human. This is joint work with A Gaidon, V. Ferrari, Z. Harchaoui, A. Klaeser, A. Prest, H. Wang.
The supervision of public spaces aims at multiple objectives, such as early acquisition of targets, their identification and pursuit throughout the supervised area. To achieve these, typical sensors such as pan-tilt-zoom cameras need to either focus on individuals, or provide a broad field of view, which are conflicting control settings. We address this problem in an information-theoretic manner: by phrasing each of the objectives in terms of mutual information, they become comparable. The problem turns into maximisation of information, which is predicted for the next time step and phrased as a decision process.
Our approach results in decisions that on average satisfy objectives in desired proportions. At the end of the talk I will address an application of information maximisation to aid in the interactive calibration of cameras.
Recovering the depth of a scene is important for bridging the gap between the real and the virtual world, but also for tasks such as segmenting objects in cluttered scenes. Very cheap single view depth imaging cameras, i.e. Time of Fight cameras (ToF) or Microsoft's Kinect system, are entering the mass consumer market. In general, the acquired images have a low spatial resolution and suffer from noise as well as technology specific artifacts. In this talk I will present algorithmic solutions to the entire depth imaging pipeline, ranging from preprocessing to depth image analysis. For enhancing image intensity and depth maps, a higher order total variation based approach has been developed which exhibits superior results as compared to current state-of-the-art approaches. This performance has been achieved by allowing jumps across object boundaries, computed both from the image gradients and the depth maps. Within objects, staircasing effects as observed in standard total variation approaches is circumvented by higher order regularization. The 2.5 D motion or range flow of the observed scenes is computed by a combined global-local approach.
Particularly on Kinect-data, best results were achieved by discarding information on object edges. These are prone to errors due to the data acquisition process. In conjunction with a calibration procedure, this leads to very accurate and robust motion estimation. On these computed range flow data, we have developed the estimation of robust, scale- and rotation-invariant features. These make it feasible to use our algorithms for a novel approach to gesture recognition for man-machine interactions. This step is currently work inprogress and I will present very promising first results.
For evaluating the results of our algorithms, we plan to use realistic simulations and renderings. We have made significant advances in analyzing the feasibility of these synthetic test images and data. The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of several objects have been measured using a purpose-build “light-dome” setup. This, together with the development of an accurate stereo-acquisition system for measuring 3D-objects lays the ground work for performing realistic renderings. Additionally, we have started to create a test-image database with ground truth for depth, segmentation and light-field data.
3D scanning of moving objects has many applications, for example, marker-less motion capture, analysis on fluid dynamics, object explosion and so on. One of the approach to acquire accurate shape is a projector-camera system, especially the methods that reconstructs a shape by using a single image with static pattern is suitable for capturing fast moving object. In this research, we propose a method that uses a grid pattern consisting of sets of parallel lines. The pattern is spatially encoded by a periodic color pattern. While informations are sparse in the camera image, the proposed method extracts the dense (pixel-wise) phase informations from the sparse pattern.
As the result, continuous regions in the camera images can be extracted by analyzing the phase. Since there remain one DOF for each region, we propose the linear solution to eliminate the DOF by using geometric informations of the devices, i.e. epipolar constraint. In addition, solution space is finite because projected pattern consists of parallel lines with same intervals, the linear equation can be efficiently solved by integer least square method.
In the experiments, a scanning system that can capture an object in fast motion has been actually developed by using a high-speed camera. In the experiments, we show the sequence of dense shapes of an exploding balloon, and other objects at more than 1000 fps.
Fitting statistical 2D and 3D shape models to images is necessary for a variety of tasks, such as video editing and face recognition. Much progress has been made on local fitting from an initial guess, but determining a close enough initial guess is still an open problem. One approach is to detect distinct landmarks in the image and initialize the model fit from these correspondences. This is difficult, because detection of landmarks based only on their local appearance is inherently ambiguous, making it necessary to use global shape information for the detections. We propose a method to solve the combinatorial problem of selecting out of a large number of candidate landmark detections the configuration which is best supported by a shape model.
Our method, as opposed to previous approaches, always finds the globally optimal configuration. The algorithm can be applied to a very general class of shape models and is independent of the underlying feature point detector.
This talk concerns the use of physics-based models for human pose tracking and scene inference. We outline our motivation for physics-based models, some results with monocular pose tracking in terms of biomechanically inspired controllers, and recent results on the inference of scene interactions. We show that physics-based models facilitate the estimation of physically plausible human motion with little or no mocap data required. Scene interactions play an integral role in modeling sources of external forces acting on the body.
In spite of the significant effort that has been devoted to the core problems of object and action recognition in images and videos, the recognition performance of state of the art algorithms is well below what would be required for any successful deployment in many applications. Additionally, there are challenging combinatorial problems associated with constructing globally “optimal” descriptions of images and videos in terms of potentially very large collections of object and action models. The constraints that are utilized in these optimization procedures are loosely referred to as “context.” So, for example, vehicles are generally supported by the ground, so that an estimate of ground plane location parameters in an image constrains positions and apparent sizes of vehicles. Another source of context are the everyday spatial and temporal relationships between objects and actions; so, for example, keyboards are typically “on” tables and not “on” cats.
The first part of the talk will discuss how visually grounded models of object appearance and relations between objects can be simultaneously learned from weakly labeled images (images which are linguistically but not spatially annotated – i.e., we are told there is a car in the image, but not where the car is located).
Next, I will discuss how these models can be more efficiently learned using active learning methods. Once these models are acquired, one approach to inferring what objects appear in a new image is to segment the image into pieces, construct a graph based on the regions in the segmentation and the relationships modeled, and then apply probabilistic inference to the graph. However, this typically results in a very dense graph with many “noisy” edges, leading to inefficient and inaccurate inference. I will briefly describe a learning approach that can construct smaller and more informative graphs for inference.
Finally, I will relax the (unreasonable) assumption that one can segment an image into regions that correspond to objects, and describe an approach that can simultaneously construct instances of objects out of collections of connected segments that look like objects, while also softly enforcing contextual constraints.
Organizers: Michel Besserve